Broadcasting Company; network
Station or agency salesperson.
who call radio stations to make requests and comments or in
response to contests and promotions.
recording of news event or person(s) involved.
ADI Area of
Dominant Influence; Arbitron measurement area.
Commercials strategically placed next to a feature.
Improvisation. Unrehearsed and spontaneous comments.
attesting to the airing of a spot schedule.
Federation of Television and Radio Artists; union made up of
broadcast performers: announcers, deejays, newscasters.
Aircheck Tape of
structure under which a loan is repaid; the structure of
time payments and interest.
Electronically increasing the power of a signal.
Modulation; method of signal transmission using Standard
Broadcast band with frequencies between 535 and 1705 kHz.
Commercial (spot) or public service message of varying
Rock radio format. Also called Classic Rock.
Press; wire and audio news service.
measurement service employing a seven-day diary to determine
the number of listeners tuned to area radio stations.
Society of Composers, Artists, and Performers; music
formal process of determining a community's needs.
Statement of the source of information in a news item.
Telescoped recording showcasing talents of air person;
Monitoring point separate from program that allows for
Equipment system designed to play prepackaged programming.
air slot for commercial announcement.
(AQH) Rating measurement used to estimate the size of a
station's audience during any fifteen minute period.
AWRT American Women
in Radio and Television.
Back announce Recap
of preceding music selections.
Balance sheet A
summary of a station's assets and liabilities.
Barter Exchange of
airtime for programming or goods.
Bed Music behind
voice in announcement.
pickup pattern Microphone pattern that is sensitive to
sound from the front and back but not the sides.
volume resulting in distortion.
Blend Merging of
complementary sound elements.
Book Term used to
describe rating survey document; "Bible."
BM Beautiful Music
radio format. One of the first formats on FM.
BMI Broadcast Music
Incorporated; music licensing service.
Promotion and Management Executives.
Bridge Sound used
between program elements.
BTA Best Time
Available, also Run of Schedule (ROS); commercials logged at
Bulk eraser Tool
for removing magnetic impression from recording tape.
Assigned station identification generally beginning with W
east of the Mississippi and K west.
Capstan Shaft in
recorder that drives tape.
pattern Microphone pattern where sound is picked up from
front and rejected from the rear.
cartridge containing a continuous loop of recording tape.
Cash flow Operating
profit before taxes, depreciation and interest are
Cassette Two reels
of tape in a plastic housing.
CFR Code of Federal
Forerunner of network broadcasting
Hit Radio format.
indicating sequence or order of programming ingredients
aired during one hour.
Cluster Group of
announcements; stop set. (see Spot set)
(music bed) fade on last line of copy.
operating own board, engineering show; also refers to
co-owned AM/FM operation.
advertising announcement; spot.
Compact disk (CD)
Digital recording using laser beam to decode surface.
Combination of salary and fringe benefits paid to an
microphone Microphone with a capacitative electrical
Console Audio mixer
consisting of inputs, outputs, toggles, meters, sliders
and/or pots; board.
advisor or counselor; "format doctor."
Control room Center
of broadcast operations from which programming originates;
Cool out Gradual
fade of bed music at conclusion of spot.
between retailer and manufacturer for the purpose of sharing
radio advertising expenses.
message; continuity, commercial script.
Copywriter One who
writes commercial or promotional copy.
Cost Per Point (CPP)
Estimate of how much it costs an advertiser to reach one
rating point worth of listeners.
Cost Per Thousand (CPM
or Cost Per Mil) Estimate of how much it costs an
advertiser to reach 1,000 listeners.
CPB Corporation for
Public Broadcasting. Funds NPR and PBS.
Crossfade Fade out
of one element while simultaneously introducing another.
Cue Signal for the
start of action; prepare for airing.
Cue burn Distortion
at the beginning of a record cut resulting from heavy
measurement, the number of people who have sampled a radio
DAB Digital Audio
Broadcasting. There are two competing systems. IBOC favored
by the US. Eureka147 favored by Canada and Europe.
DAT Digital audio
Dayparts Periods or
segments of broadcast day: 6-10a.m., 10a.m. - 3p.m., 3-
Dead air Silence
where sound usually should be; absence of programming.
Deejay Host of
radio music program; announcer; "disk jockey."
Audience statistical data pertaining to age, sex, race,
income, and so forth.
Satellite (DBS) Powerful communications satellites that
beam programming to receiving dishes at earth stations.
transmitting signal in a preordained pattern so as to
protect other stations on the same or adjacent frequency.
Donut spot A
commercial in which copy is inserted between segments of
Illegal station billing practice in which client is charged
primetime: 6-10 a.m. and 3-7 p.m.
Dub Copy of
recording; duplicate (dupe).
Broadcast System. (now EAS) Emergency Alert System.
Edit To alter
composition of recorded material; splice.
ENG Electronic news
Erase Wipe clean
magnetic impressions; degauss, bulk, deflux, demagnetize.
radiated power; tape head configuration: erase, record,
for minority group audiences.
Audio Broadcasting System being used by Canada and Europe.
Fact sheet List of
pertinent information on a sponsor.
Fade To slowly
lower or raise volume level.
Communications Commission; government regulatory body with
authority over radio operations.
of sound dissemination or reproduction.
Fixed position Spot
routinely logged at a specified time.
Modulation; method of signal transmission using 88-108 MHz
FMX System used to
improve FM reception.
Format Type of
programming a station offers; arrangement of material,
Frequency Number of
cycles-per-second of a sine wave.
utilizing entire width of tape.
Soft-tip marker used to inscribe recording tape for editing
Total number of exposures to a schedule of announcements.
Gross Rating Points
(GRP) Representation of the total number of exposures to a
schedule of announcements, expressed as a percentage of all
Ground wave AM
signal traveling the earth's surface; primary signal.
HD-Radio (see IBOC)
worn directly over the ears; headsets, cans.
Hertz (Hz) Cycles
per second; unit of electromagnetic frequency. (named after
also uptempo AC.
Hot clock Wheel
indicating when particular music selections are to be aired.
presentation; high-intensity, punched.
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; union.
On-Channel. System that would allow digital broadcasting
over current AM and FM frequencies. Major companies
promoting IBOC included Lucent and USADR USA Digital Radio,
Inc. These companies have merged and are now know as
Ibiquity. IBOC is now refered to as HD-Radio.
identification required by law to be broadcast as close to
the top of the hour as possible; station break.
receiving incoming current.
Message promoting general image.
IPS Inches per
second; tape speed: 1 7/8, 3 3/4, 7 1/2, 15, 30 IPS.
Telecommunications Union; world broadcasting regulatory
Jack Plug for
patching sound sources; patch-cord, socket, input.
commercial or promo; signature, aural-logo.
Jock see Deejay.
KDKA First radio
station licensed by the Department of Commerce.
Turning a sound source on or off from the console.
thousand cycles per second; AM frequency measurement,
Plastic, metallic, or paper tape used in conjunction with
magnetic tape for marking and spacing purposes.
Level Amount of
volume units; audio measurements.
or company holding license issued by the FCC for broadcast
used for transmission of audio; phone-line.
of FM signal; FM propagation.
Liner cards Written
on-air promos used to ensure adherence to station image;
Live copy Material
read over air; not prerecorded.
Live tag Postscript
to taped message.
Class IV AM stations found at high end of band:
Replacement spot for one missed.
Market Area served
by a broadcast facility; ADI.
recording from which dubs are made.
Master control see
Broadcasting System; radio network.
Million cycles per second; FM frequency measurement,
of sound elements to create desired effect; production
speaker; supervise on-air sound; aircheck.
Mono Single or
fulltrack sound; monaural, monophonic.
Middle-of-the-Road radio format.
Radio's most listened-to daypart: 6:00-10:00 a.m.
MSA Metro Survey
Area; geographic area in radio survey.
Impressing two or more signals on one carrier as in FM
Recording sound-on-sound; overdubbing, stacking tracks.
Music sweep Several
selections played back-to-back without interruption; music
Association of Broadcasters.
Directed programming; targeting specific audience
Broadcasting Company; the first radio network.
combine providing programming to affiliates: CBS, ABC,
Programs sent to affiliate stations.
News block Extended
NPR National Public
pickup pattern Microphone pickup pattern that picks up
sound equally well from all directions.
O and O's Network
or group owned and operated stations.
outside normal range of microphone.
Out-cue Last words
in a line of carted copy.
of audio or power from one location to another; transfer
standard or prescribed audio levels; pinning VU needle.
programming; syndicated, prerecorded, taped.
who do not call stations in response to contests or
promotions or to make requests or comments; the silent
connector; cord, cable.
Patch panel Jack
board for connecting audio sources: remotes, studios,
equipment; patch bay.
illegal payment to a disc jockey or radio station programmer
for playing or plugging a record.
Persons using radio
(PUR) Measurement of the number of persons listening to
stations in a market.
Pinch roller Rubber
wheel that presses recording tape against the capstan.
Reproduction of recorded sound.
Playlist Roster of
music for airing.
Popping Breakup of
audio due to gusting or blowing into mike; blasting.
statement used on-air to define a station's position in a
volume control knob, gain control, fader, attentuator,
PSA Public Service
Announcement; noncommercial message.
PRI Public Radio
Production The use
of studio equipment to combine sounds into a finished
product. See Mixdown.
Research term dealing with listener personality, such as
attitude, behavior, values, opinions, and beliefs.
speaker/channel sound reproduction; surround sound.
Rack Prepare or set
up for play or record: "rack-it-up"; equipment container.
measurement service by Statistical Research, Inc.
Rate card Statement
of advertising fees and terms.
of the total available audience.
of how many different members of an audience will be exposed
to a message.
Corporation of America; NBC parent company.
Recording machine with feed and take-up reels.
originating away from station control room.
Reverb Close echo;
redundancy of sound.
return of recording tape from take up reel.
Ride gain Monitor
level; watch VU needle.
Rip 'n' read Airing
copy unaltered from newswire.
rpm Revolutions per
minute: 33 1/3, 45, and 78 rpm.
RTNDA Radio and
Television News Directors Association.
Bulk commercial buying plan where station's traffic
department will fit the commercials into available time
locations. See BTA
device for relaying audio from one earth station to another;
DBS, Comsat, Satcom.
SBE Society of
Communication Authority; subcarrier FM.
area AM skywave listening area.
flow of recorded material; continuous.
SESAC Society of
European Stage Authors and Composers; music licensing
for sound effects.
Share Percentage of
station's listenership compared to competition; piece of
aural logo, jingle, ID.
Simultaneous broadcast over two or more frequencies.
SIRIUS One of two
national satellite radio services. (See also XM)
Sky wave Radio wave
that bounces off the ionosphere.
Sound bite Audio
portion of interview. See Actuality.
Sound hour Term
referring to the programming strategy with an hour of
Spectrum Range of
frequencies available to broadcasters.
Spec tape Specially
tailored commercial used as a sales tool to help sell and
Splice To join
ends of recording tape with adhesive; edit.
Grooved platform for cutting and joining recording tape;
client, account, underwriter.
Spot set Group or
cluster of announcements; stop set.
facility given specific frequency by FCC.
identification Station call letters immediately followed by
city of license. for example: WVUD Newark
Document containing specific operating information as
outlined in Section 73.1820 of the FCC Rules and
Station rep company
acting in behalf of local stations to national agencies.
sound; two program channels.
Stinger Music or
sound effect finale preceded by last line of copy; button,
Announcement employing unaffected, nongimicky approach;
Stringer Field or
on-scene reporter; freelance reporter.
Advertising or programming not consciously perceived; below
normal range of awareness, background.
Transitional jingle between sound elements.
Programs sent to a network of users.
of purchasable program material.
Tag Postscript to
performer; announcer, deejay, newscaster.
and interview radio format.
TAP Total Audience
Plan; spot package divided between specific dayparts; 1/3
AAA, 1/3 AA, 1/3 A.
Tape speed Movement
measured in inches per second. See IPS.
Compressing of sound to fit a desired length; technique used
in audition tapes and concert promos, editing.
TFN Till Further
Notice; without specific kill date.
Time spent listening
(TSL) Measurement of average amount of time spent by
average listener tuned to a station.
Precursor to commercial radio.
Total Survey Area (TSA)
Geographic area in radio survey.
of station airtime for goods or services.
department responsible for scheduling sponsor announcements.
broadcast; propagate signal, air.
Measurement of how often listenership changes from time
period to time period.
device used to play records :-)
sponsor; noncommercial financial sponsor.
by which noncommercial stations seek financial support from
Microphone designed to pick up sound in one direction;
cardiod, studio mike.
VOA Voice of
America. U.S. International broadcast service.
Recording of announcer message for use in mixdown.
Volume Quality of
sound; audio level.
Volume control Pot;
VU Meter Gauge
measuring units of sound.
Administrative Radio Conference; international meeting
charged with assigning spectrum space.
Wheel Program tool
indicating sequence or order of programming ingredients
aired during one hour.
Microphone filter used to prevent popping and distortion.
Early radio used to transmit Morse code.
Wire service News
gathering organization; for example:AP.
Wow Distortion of
sound created by inappropriate speed; miscue.
XM One of two
national satellite radio services. (See also Sirius)
Zone I Region of
the country where class B FM stations are located.
O'Donnell, L. M.,
Hausman, C., Benoit, P. (1989) Radio station operations:
Management and employee perspectives. Wadsworth: Belmont,
Keith, M. C. and
Krause, J. M. (1989). The Radio Station Focal Press: Boston.